Methods to Evaluate Vascular Function: Personalized Medicine

The gatekeeper of the blood arteries, the endothelium, was a very varied physical barrier that could produce vasoactive and protective mediators under physiological settings. Vascular tone, hemostasis, vascular inflammation, remodeling, and angiogenesis were all regulated. Many cardio-, reno-, and cerebrovascular disorders begin with endothelial cell failure, and COVID-19 has recently been linked to endothelial disease, stressing the need to track its function to prevent and reduce vascular dysfunction. Endothelial cells were a key therapeutic target in predictive, preventative, and personalized (3P) medicine, with vascular disorders being the most important. The development of novel non-invasive approaches to access endothelial dysfunction, which might be used in conjunction with existing clinical imaging modalities, offered a viable way to minimize vascular disease burden. The paper summarized recent improvements in endothelial function measurement principles. The key advantages and disadvantages of invasive and non-invasive approaches for determining vascular function were discussed in the article. In addition, the essay discussed the processes that regulated vascular function and dysfunction, as well as potential novel endothelium damage biomarkers. Recognizing these biomarkers was critical for transitioning from reactive to proactive therapy in the vascular sector. Using non-invasive or minimally invasive approaches to detect vascular dysfunction sooner offers value to predictive diagnoses and focused prevention (primary, secondary, tertiary care). Furthermore, vascular dysfunction might be targeted for treatment that was personalized to the individual.

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